What is Casting?

Casting does one of the earliest production methods use by many industrial organizations in the history of art and design. However, their uses and applications have a long and varied history, and they continue to play an important role in today’s artistic and industrial production areas. Casting is a quick and inexpensive way to give a metal (or other material) object the shape you want. The metal shapes created by the casting process may be complex designs that would otherwise involve a significant technological investment if done in any other way. Read this guide to learn more about casting, its types, advantages, and disadvantages. First, let’s have a look at what casting is.

Metal Pouring

What is Casting?

“Casting is a manufacturing technique. In the casting process, a liquid material is added into a mold to get the desired item. The mold has a hollow space of the required shape. The liquid material in the mold is allowed to solidify. This solid part is called a “casting.” The liquid material present in the mold in solid form is ejected or broken out of the mold to finish the process.”.

Types of Casting

3D Printing Investment Casting

Sand Casting

This casting procedure uses a sand mold to create castings .”Sand casting can use to produce steel, iron, and most nonferrous alloys. The most common casting method, sand casting, uses disposable sand casting molds (The mold in sand casting is made up of Sand) to create intricate metal pieces in almost any alloy. However, sand casting has a poor production rate.

This is because to get the product; you must destroy the mold. Therefore, this method has a disadvantage compared to other methods in which the molds are reusable. The sand casting technique involves using a furnace, metal, design, and sand casting mold. First, the metal is heated in the furnace and poured into a sand casting mold. The solidified casting can be removed once the sand mold separates along a dividing line.

Investment Casting

Die Casting

“To make a casting, a high-pressure metal liquid is forced into a precision metal mold cavity at fast speed, then cooled and solidified under pressure.”

Die casting is a production process. The molds used in this process are not wasted. They are reusable molds. These reusable molds are called dies. The die casting manufacturing process does use to make geometrically complex metal objects. A furnace, metal, mold(the mold in Die casting is made up of metal), die casting machine, and die are all used in the die casting process. Like sand casting, the metal does the heat in a furnace. Then, it does force into a die casting mold (dies). The metal heated in the furnace does aluminum or zinc (nonferrous). The molten metal feeds into the dies, where it cools quickly and hardens into the completed item, referred to as the casting.

Die casting molds consist of two halves with a cavity. The molten liquid melt is forced into this cavity during the casting process. The halves are mounted on a fixed and movable machine surface. The mold halves are subjected to a great deal of pressure throughout the casting process, which is why locks are included. Furthermore, specific areas of the die casting mold are cooled and/or heated in order for the casting to solidify as required.

Die Casting manufacturers are of two types:

  1. Hot Chambers ManufacturersThese manufacturers can use alloys with low melting temperatures, for example, zinc.
  2. Cold Chambers ManufacturersThese manufacturers can use alloys with high melting temperatures, for example, aluminum.
investment casting vs sand casting

Investment Casting

“Thousands of years ago, molten metal does pour into a disposable ceramic mold in a method known as investment casting .” In the modern age, there are many investment casting foundries where the investment casting process occurs. First, a wax pattern – a disposable component shaped like the intended part – can use to create the mold for investment casting.

After the pattern does melt into the mold, it can cover in a ceramic slurry. This “invests” in the design. Investment casting is also known as “lost-wax cast” because the wax pattern can remove from the mold. The lox-wax process is one-to-one, meaning that one pattern makes one item. This increases manufacturing time and costs. Because the mold does destroy during the manufacturing process, parts with intricate geometries or fine details can still make.

types of patterns in casting

Shell Mold Casting

“Shell mold casting is a metal casting sand process. In this casting process, molten metal is poured into a disposable mold of the desired shape”.
In shell mold casting, on the other hand, the mold is a thin-walled shell made by depositing a sand-resin mixture around a design. Multiple shell molds are made from the pattern, which is a metal piece shaped like the desired part. Higher manufacturing speeds are possible with a reusable pattern, whereas complex geometries are possible with disposable molds. A metal pattern, an oven, a sand-resin combination, a dump box, and molten metal are required for shell mold casting.


Centrifugal Casting

“ It is a permanent mold procedure that fills a mold with molten material using centrifugal force.” This casting method is of three kinds.

  1. Centrifugal Casting
  2. True centrifugal casting
  3. Semi centrifugal casting

Their mechanism of the process is the same. Molten metal is poured into a bowl, from which it is centrifugally driven into the mold( rotating around an axis). The centrifugal force is the radially directed outward force on an object moving in a curved path. Alfred Krupp developed the centrifugal casting process in 1852. He used centrifugal casting for making railway wheels. By carefully controlling the metal and crystal structure, high-quality items can be produced utilizing this casting technique. These casting techniques are primarily employed to create rotationally symmetric items. This procedure does not produce the finished result; it takes some machining to achieve a fine finish.

Treatment of steel casting defects

Permanent Mold Casting

Permanent mold casting is a metal casting method. In this method, the mold can fill with molten metal and remains close until it cools and hardens into the desired shape. Permanent mold casting is similar to sand casting. Sand casting, on the other hand, uses a disposable mold that is thrown away after each cycle. Like die casting, permanent molds use metal molds (dies) that can be reused thousands of times and usually consist of steel or cast iron. In permanent molds, casting can also refer to as gravity die casting, in which case there is no external force to pour the molten metal into the mold.

Permanent mold casting does most often use to make small base metal parts with consistent wall thickness in large quantities. Alloys of aluminum, copper, and magnesium are the common non-ferrous metals used in this procedure. However, it can also use graphite molds to cast iron and steel.

Advantages of Casting

Following are the advantages of castings which make it best among most manufacturing processes.

  1. Casting makes the item have extremely intricate form and internal hollows.
  2. It can use to create parts ranging in size from a few hundred kilos to a few kilograms (thousand of kilograms).
  3. Both non-ferrous and ferrous metallic elements do cast.
  4. It is cost-effective and waste-free since the excess metal from each casting is re-metalized and re-used.
  5. It is a process that is very adaptable to the needs of mass manufacturing, allowing for the rapid creation of vast quantities of a particular casting.
  6. Casting tools are more affordable and straightforward.
  7. Only castings can make certain metals and alloys.
  8. From casting, an exact object is created.
  9. The isotropic structure is created.
  10. Among all production methods, it is the most cost-effective.
  11. Casting can use to make composite components.

Disadvantages of Casting

No doubt, casting is the most cost-effective method among all production methods, and exact objects can create from casting. But there are some disadvantages of this method. Following are the disadvantages of this method:

  1. Surface quality is relatively rough, requiring a wider tolerance and making mating interfaces unsuitable.
  2. Some metal casting processes have a limit in terms of size and pattern.
  3. Although additive manufacturing technologies such as binder jetting have recently been utilized to manufacture molds, patterns are time-consuming and expensive to create.
  4. Some casting processes are costly for medium runs.
  5. The size and substance of the part are determined by the casting method used. For permanent mold castings, for example, only non-ferrous metals are allowed.
  6. This method does hinder casting defects, for example, moisture in the sand.
  7. When compared to forging, it has lower fatigue strength.

Applications of casting

Let’s have a look at some applications of the casting process

General applications

The following are some examples of general casting applications.

  1. Parts made of cast iron are utilized at railway crossings.
  2. Transportation vehicles.
  3. Applications of atomic energy
  4. Generator of electricity
  5. Parts of railway crossings
  6. Turbine Vanes
  7. Agriculture parts
  8. Parts of communication
  9. Turbine at a power plant
  10. Parts for sanitary fittings.
  11. Engine block for a car
  12. Tool beds for machines
  13. Rolls for the mill
  14. Pipes for water and sewage.
  15. Engines for transport vehicles

Applications of Casting in the Automobile industry:

Components of complex shape and size were required in the vehicle industry. Other manufacturing methods are unable to make these pieces. Therefore, the casting process does use to make 60% of the components in an automobile. Because the strength of Casting components is greater than that of other manufacturing parts, strength is a critical attribute in automobiles.

  1. Cylinder Block
  2. Fuel Intake part
  3. Piston Ring
  4. Engine Components
  5. Parts of sunroof
  6. Transmission parts

Application of Casting in industries :

The casting technique can use to make a cylindrical hollow cylinder, a piston can use in automobiles, a pulley, engine manifolds, valves, nuts, and Defence equipment, among other products. Casting does utilize in various industries, including aerospace, Defence, automobiles, trains, construction, agricultural, mining, and chemical. It can also use to make home decor and ornaments.

  1. In transport industry: Shipping, aerospace, railways, automobile
  2. Households: Appliances, Kitchen equipment, fitting equipment
  3. Defense equipment: Vehicles, Artillery, Supporting equipment
  4. Plant equipment: Sugar mill equipment, Plastic industry, Paper industry, Thermal power plant, Petroleum industries
  5. Art object: Furniture, sculptures, idols
  6. Municipal casting: Valve, pipe, joints, and fittings
  7. Machine tools: plastics molding, forging, extrusion, and forming.


Casting is an essential production technology that enables the manufacturing industry to make various items. Casting can do in various ways, including sand casting, die casting, investment casting, and more. We hope that this guide has given you a better understanding of the casting process and its benefits and drawbacks.