Over the ages, many metallurgical factories have practised many metal fabrication technology. Consequently, these factories have gradually upgraded these techniques based on their generation requirements. In this case, forging and casting are standard metal fabrication methods. However, metal forging vs casting is one of metallurgy’s oldest metal reformation techniques. Both of these metal fabrication methods have been around for thousands of years. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of these two popular methods (forging vs casting). Besides, the difference between casting and forging may not be understandable the first time. But it will be apparent once you have read the article completely.
Maybe you are looking for a metal part that doesn’t exist. Or, you may need to make it from custom manufacturing. In addition, you also need the metal part, which ensures quality and durability. The difference between the casting and forging guide will make it easy for you. It will help to choose the appropriate metal fabrication process for your required metal part.
This article is a definitive guide to the fundamental differences between forging and casting. First, we will discuss basic information about these two methods (forging vs casting). Later, we prepared a summary table, a quick hint of understanding. However, it highlighted all the fundamental differences between forging and casting.
What is forging?
Forging is a traditional metal shaping method using a comprehensive force. This metal fabrication process is prevalent in most metal fabrication shops. However, a hammer or die is the primary equipment to produce this force. This equipment continues to strike the metal until it gets the required shape. This deformation of the metal is also famous as the pounding action. It creates unbroken grain flow allowing the metal to retain its strength. In this unique grain flow, there’s a term called ancillary effect, which eliminates defects, inclusion, or porosity.
Since different forging processes are popular, experts have divided them into three main classes. First, Drawn out increases the length and decreases the cross-sectional area. Second, upset reduces the size and increases the cross-section area. However, in the third forging process, the squeezed process creates different directional flows. On the other hand, based on the temperature at which the operation is performed, there are two types of forging: Hot forging and cold forging.
Benefits of forging metals
Since forging is one of the oldest metal fabrication technologies, it provides some advantages. A typical steel forging process improves metal’s mechanical properties. Specifically, it increases consistency, strength, tighter grain structure, and prolonged durability. However, the following four advantages are noteworthy for the metal forging process.
- Strength: The metal forging process undoubtedly produces stronger metals than the casting process. During the forging process, the internal metal grain deforms and creates variation in the texture. It results in an increased strength characteristic.
- Reliability: Since forging produces metals with increased strength, it ultimately provides consistent ductility.
- Integrity: Due to metal increased strength and elasticity, forged steel provides high predictability.
- Budgeted Option: The metal forging process is cheaper than metal casting. It doesn’t require additional tooling for the mould.
Although forged steel provides a wide range of benefits, it has some disadvantages too. As a result of these drawbacks, people choose the metal casting process. The following are the three main reasons why people choose metal casting over forging.
- Limitations over the shape: It is the main reason why people choose metal casting over forging. Metal forging is not suitable for complex shape manufacturing. It can manufacture a relatively more uncomplicated shape than metal casting. As a result, it can not meet the requirements of lots of applications.
- Lower tolerance: Some forged metals can not assure higher tolerance. As a result, forged steel can not meet the requirements of higher-tolerance applications.
- Additional operation: The forged steel may require additional machining for a better outcome. Metal casting requires less additional machining than the other metal fabrication process.
Forged steel is prevalent in a wide range of applications. Aircraft engines, airframes, and other aircraft equipment are some noteworthy examples. Besides, passenger cars, trucks, buses, and trailers are notable examples of automotive applications. Forged steel is prevalent in a wide range of applications. Aircraft engines, airframes, and other aircraft equipment are some noteworthy examples. Besides, passenger cars, trucks, buses, and trailers are notable examples of automotive applications. Other popular applications include electric power plant equipment, hydraulic equipment, and shipyards.
What is casting?
Metal casting is a metal fabrication process that pours molten metal into a mould chamber and creates complex metal shapes. The metal casting process is more than 7000 years old in metal manufacturing. However, the mould is a specialized chamber consisting of different gating systems and a cavity. This cavity finally creates different metal shapes. This mould can be permanent or temporary based on the type of metal casting methods.
However, four types of metal casting methods are widely popular in metal manufacturing. These types depend on different mould types. Each casting method offers unique capabilities to make simple and complex metal parts.
- Sand Casting: This metal casting method uses different non-reusable sands as a mould to create different types of metal shapes. “Sand Mould Casting: Everything you should know” is a definitive guide to the fundamentals of sand casting.
- Investment Casting: This method creates a mould from a pattern filled with refractory material. The wax pattern is the most common choice in this type of casting. However, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Investment Casting” highlights the fundamentals of investment casting.
- Die Casting: In this casting method, high pressure forces the molten metal into the mould. Die moulds usually consist of two different parts. Once the molten metal cools down, you can open these two parts and remove the mould. You may get more information in the article “Investment Casting vs Die Casting – Choose the Best Method for Your Project.”
- Centrifugal Casting: This metal casting method uses a permanent mould to have a finer internal diameter. Centrifugal casting products are comparatively durable. This metal casting method is the most common for large order quantities.
Benefits of casting metals
The drawbacks of the forging process become the benefit of the metal casting process. The following four points are the primary benefits you can get from the metal casting process.
- Complex metal shapes: The metal casting method can create various metal shapes and sizes. Using different casting methods, you can make all types of metal shapes. This benefit helped a lot of companies to develop advanced technology.
- Flexible: Casting methods are incredibly faster than the typical forging process. The die-casting way is famous for making a high volume of metal parts with an average speed of 100 hits per die.
- Quality finish: Metal casting parts usually don’t require additional machining as it comes out with a quality finish.
- Less labour: Metal casting methods are semi or fully-automated processes. As a result, operating the specific parts doesn’t require many employees.
Similar to the forging method, the metal casting method has some drawbacks. Because of these drawbacks, people can go for the forging process if they don’t require complex shapes. The following two are the main drawbacks of the forging process.
- High Cost: Metal casting require comparatively higher cost than forging equipment. Besides, the machinery used for metal casting is also relatively expensive.
- Lower integrity: Porosity is a common phenomenon in the metal casting process. However, the forging process seldom creates porosity defects.
The metal casting method is also popular in a wide range of industries. Transport, heavy equipment, defence, electrical machinery, and household appliances are noteworthy industries. However, steel, grey iron, and ductile iron are the most common metal casting products in all those industries.
Forging vs casting: The difference between casting and forging
Forging and casting are both widespread in the metal manufacturing industries. Depending on the customer requirements, these industries choose between forging and casting. We have prepared a summary table of forging vs casting in the following. In this case, this summary table will give you the hints required to distinguish between forging and casting.
|Content||Metal Forging||Metal Casting|
|Definition||It is a metal fabrication process that uses comprehensive force to create metal shapes.||It is a metal fabrication process that involves pouring molten metal into a mould to create different metal shapes.|
|Compressive strength||Products from forging have a high compressive strength||Products from metal casting have low compressive strength.|
|Fatigue strength||Products from metal forging have high fatigue strength.||Products from metal casting have low fatigue strength.|
|Shapes and sizes||Metal forging has limitations in manufacturing complex metal shapes.||Different casting methods can produce all types of metal shapes.|
|Tolerance||Products from metal forging usually have lower tolerances||Products from metal casting offer high tolerances|
|Labour required||Metal forging requires comparatively more labour than metal casting.||Metal casting requires less labour than metal forging.|
|Cost||Metal forging is comparatively cheap||Metal casting is relatively expensive.|
Above all, forging vs casting is a popular topic in metal industries. Moreover, these two metal fabrication process (forging vs casting) creates high-quality metal products. In this case, each method has unique capabilities, making it popular for individual products. Forging metal is more robust than metal casting. Forging produces more tensile, fatigue, and yield strength than metal casting. On the other hand, metal casting manufactures both simple and complex metal shapes.
However, Dawang Casting produces all types of metal casting products. This company always ensures high quality and guaranteed durability of their metal parts. In addition, this company always welcomes customers to ask any question they can. Therefore, don’t hesitate to contact them if you want something. Their team of experts is waiting to answer all your queries in brief.